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Related Resources

Don't Link to Us. (website)
Abstract: Don't Link to Us! links to sites that attempt to impose substantial restrictions on other sites that link to them. The Linking Policy for Don't Link to Us! precludes us from requesting permission to link to a site, and compels us to link directly to the targeted page (i.e., a "deep link") rather than to a site's home page.

Search Engines and Legal Issues, Search Engine Watch. (reference)
Abstract: Search Engine Watch reports on legal disputes involving search engines and their technology.

Interconnectivity. (Berkman Center ILAW module)

Links and Law, Stephan Ott. (reference)
Abstract: Information about the legal aspects of linking and framing, including case law summaries, links to relevant court rulings worldwide and to relevant articles (in English and German).

The Link Controversy Page, Stefan Bechtold. (reference)
Abstract: The Link Controversy Page is intended to provide an overview of the legal problems of using hyperlinks, inline images and frames on the WWW. Right now, this page covers problems in the area of copyright, trademark, trespass law as well as unfair competition law.

Kelly v. Arriba Soft, 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. (case)
Abstract: The 9th US Circuit Court of Appeals has held that an Internet search engine named Arriba (now Ditto.com) did not infringe a professional photographer's copyright by creating a database of image thumbnails and by displaying small, lower-quality thumbnail images as search results. (The court withdrew an earlier holding regarding inline full-size images.)

Ticketmaster v. Tickets.com, U.S. District Court, Central District of California. (case)
Abstract: The motion of Ticketmaster Corporation and Ticketmaster Online-Search, Inc. (hereafter collectively Ticketmaster or TM) for preliminary injunction against Tickets.Com, Inc. (hereafter T.Com) [for "deep-linking" to pages within the Ticketmaster website] is denied.

Amicus brief opposing DeCSS hyperlink injunction, Openlaw/DVD. (legal brief)
Abstract: Plaintiffs seek to extend the Courtís preliminary injunction to prohibit 2600 magazine from publishing a hyperlinked account of and commentary on its ongoing legal battle. They ask this Court to suppress speech on the unproven assertion that the speech constitutes "providing" of what is alleged, but again not proven to be, a circumvention device. The Court should reject this extraordinary prior restraint and, on the fuller record now available, should vacate the existing injunction.

Subject: WorldWideWeb: Summary, Tim Berners-Lee's post to alt.hypertext. (historical)
Abstract: Reader view The WWW world consists of documents, and links. Indexes are special documents which, rather than being read, may be searched. The result of such a search is another ("virtual") document containing links to the documents found. A simple protocol ("HTTP") is used to allow a browser program to request a keyword search by a remote information server.

Links and Law, Tim Berners-Lee. (personal view)
Abstract: Normal hypertext links do not of themselves imply that the document linked to is part of, is endorsed by, or endorses, or has related ownership or distribution terms as the document linked from. However, embedding material by reference (sometimes called an embedding form of hypertext link) causes the embedded material to become a part of the embedding document.

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